Posted on 3rd May 2017 23:11:12 in Proofreading

Application of logical laws and rules


Since the scientific dissertation uses concepts and judgments, it is obvious that, above all, it is precisely these semantic units that must satisfy the proofreading requirement of certainty. This requirement finds its expression in the law of identity, according to which the object of thought within one reasoning must remain unchanged, i.e. A is A (A = A), where A is a thought. Such proofreading requires that during the communication all concepts and judgments be unambiguous, eliminating ambiguity and uncertainty. At first glance, the requirement contained in the law of identity is extremely simple. In fact, you only have to exercise minimal rigor without mixing different (even close) thoughts, delineating them from each other with sufficient clarity. However, for a number of reasons this simplicity is deceptive. To such reasons, above all, is a large layer of phenomena of language and speech. After all, in any dissertation we are dealing not with a "pure" thought, but with the unity of its content and verbal form. Meanwhile, it is well known that outwardly identical verbal constructions can have different contents and, conversely, the same thought can be expressed in different ways. The first phenomenon is called homonymy, the second is called synonymy. Homonymy makes possible the unjustified identification of objectively different, and synonymy is the erroneous distinction of identity. Identification of various concepts is one of the most common logical errors in the scientific test - the substitution of the concept. The essence of this error lies in the fact that instead of the given concept and under the guise of it another concept is used. And this substitution can be either unconscious or deliberate. Substitution of a concept means the substitution of the subject of description. The description in this case will apply to different subjects, although they will be mistaken for one object.

The requirement of consistency of thinking expresses the law of contradiction. According to this law, two statements can not be true at the same time, one of which claims something and the other denies the same thing. Proofreading should make it clear. The law states: "It is not true that A and not A are both true." The basis of the law of contradiction is the qualitative certainty of things and phenomena, the relative stability of their properties. Reflecting this aspect of reality, the law of contradiction requires that during the conversation we do not allow contradictory statements. If, for example, object A has a certain property, then in judgments about this subject we are obliged to affirm this property, and not to deny it and not to ascribe to this object what it does not have. The law of contradiction for scientific work is of great importance. Its conscious use helps to detect and eliminate contradictions in the explanations of facts and phenomena, to develop
Critical attitude to all kinds of inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the communication of scientific dissertation. The law of contradiction is usually used in evidence: if it is established that one of the opposite judgments is true, then it follows that the other proposition is false. A conflict of contradiction is the strongest argument against any statement.